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10/20/21

organization structure meaning

It has been pointed out that an organization structure consist of a group of dedicated individuals Co-operating under the direction of the executive leadership of the business organisation towards the achievement and accomplishments of certain goals and objective. An organization structure ,on the other hand is the set of formal, planned relationship between organisations of similar functions, and between the physical factors and the staff required for the performance of these functions.  It is set up basically for the purpose of promoting coooperation and facilitating the exercise of executive leadership. It allow the retention of coordinated thougth and action even though the structural organisation relationship becomes more difficult and complex with growth. 
The form, which the organization structure takes may be represented pictorially by an organization chart . The chart is useful since it helps in locating the properly either position or functions and is shows the lines of responsibility, authority and accountability.  In other to illustrate the organisation structure one must need a great deal more than just a chart,however business whining to show there entire organisation set up. Usually do so by arranging and preparing the companies manual, containing the companies policies and objectives chart for major and minor organisations settings, job descriptions and specification, and standard procedure.

       The portion of the structure presented 
shows the two type of simple organisation chart ;the first is the vertical dimension which is cut into a number of levels of authority known as service level.  The second is the horizontal dimension ,which is cut into functions or groups of functions.

Types of organization structure 

The two type of if organisation structure include the following; 
1. The line organisation 
2. The staff organisation 

The line organisation is mainly concerned with towards primary services goals and objective for example the line organisations in a manufacturing relate works directly towards the creation, distribution or financing of salable. While the staff organisation focus and provide benefits and services to the organisation itself or to people outside the organisation associated with it, within a company Zoe course, there are staff units. A  Sales department would be an example of a line unit, the production control department of staff unit. 

Types of authority found in an organisation structure 

There are two basic type of authority recognized in and organisation which include;
1. Line authority 
2. Staff authority 

Line authority is found in a superior subordinate relationship.  One who has a line authority can make decisions and actions, he or she can hold the the younger staff accountable for the action that is expected in the long run. 
Staff authority is the right to serve, recommend, advice accordingly, it does not create a gap of superior relationship between staff executives over the line organisation. A staff is established to perform work to help and support the line, not to dominate it.  It is possible for staff executive to show authority over his own staff administration, since he or she has the legal right of decision and command within his or her organisational structure.  Staff people occasionally assume or are given little command right over the line functions. Under particular circumstance, but this is not usually accepted and done.
The types of organization unit and the types of authority are most times confused .there times when a staff executive may act and stand in for a superior line executive.  There are times when the line executives may also perform the function of a staff. For example in the case of committee service are is follows;
The kinds of organization structure which are mainly recognize in a committee services include 
a.  The line organisation 
b.  The line and staff organisation 
c.  The function organisation

The line organisation structure 

In the line organisation; authority is delegated directly from the top to the bottom in an unbroken line.  There are no staff organisational unit.  Both the staff and the line functions are merge in the work of line unit. Each individual exercise line authority over his own juniors.
Advantages  

1. The simple, direct lines of responsibility and authority are easy to know and understand.  There is no question about who is to report to whom.
2. Control and decipline are facilitated because of the effective of command 
3. Decisions are done and made more quickly than would be the case with complicated organisational relationships. 

Disadvantages

1.contineud line growth without corresponding staff growth and development, tends to develop an excessive load of administration responsibility.
2. With the growth centralise line control of activities tend to break down as the load on the simple line organisation increase and the chain of command increases because of the reason stated above, the line organisation is best used in small organizations .

The functional organisation

The functional organisation structure is one in which there are a number of functional expert supervising the activities of a single junior staff.  In it, different staff unit have line authorities one the same people.  The junior staff is supposed to be accountable to and recieve command from all of the functionak expert, each of whom handles matters associated with his own field 

Advantages

1. It allows a high degree of expertise and specialization 
2. It is easier to fill positions in such organisational structure because functional specialist is required to have only a limited number expertise. 
3. It allows each specialist to become an expert in his or her own field.  

Disadvantages 

1. It suffers from two forms of authority and violates the principle of single accountability 
2. Authority and responsibilities often over lap, it is hard to draw a shape line in between functions, so that passing the buck is a problem and challenge 
3. It is often hard to get technical expert to work together smoothly. Each is likely to feel that his area of expertise is the most import.
It is not surprising that a complete fictionalized organisation structure has never been used successfully. As a business organisations it need to be insured by the insurance companies for effective utilization of staff performance.

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