The research process:

We have so far discussed the need for research and the methidolmet for it conduct. This article will in this section determine what research really is ano get our selves aquinted with it's characteristics.

Research process

What is research;

The term research is one that has been misconstrued for long by stuenstu an the general public. For example a student who uses a dictionary or an encyclopedia for the meaning of a term or concept feels that he is conducting research. It is even worse when the us of a library is involved. The misconception of the term must be corrected an this can be done by carefully understanding the general characteristics or features pointed in the various definition we shall discuss.

To  layman research may mean searching for something over an over again an succeeding in finding it's at the end of the excise. There are a many definition of term research as there are authurs research related write ups. The interesting thing about the different definition is that almost all of them emphasis certian specific points semantically. we shall critical analyse some definition by few selected author tis will give us an insight into the real meaning of research and enable us venture our own definition.
  • "The manner in which people solve their knotty problems inan attempt to push back the frontier of human ignorance" Paul leedy.
  • "A  quest for info for the solution of a specific problem an for adding to man store of knowledge" the new book of know.
  • "A process of finding out the solution to s problem"
  • Nwana.
  • " The process of arriving at dependable solution to problems through planned and systematic collection. Analysis and interpretation of data" E.C. osuala.
  • "A systematic search for new knowledge o the subject o study and or application o knowledge to the ssolutionof novel problem in the area o study" E.O akuezuilo.
  • " A systematic controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical proposition about presumed relations among natural phenomena" kerlinger.
The motivating Force in all research is the existence of a problem and the urge to take care of or solve it. Without a problem situation there will be no research. As earlier mentioned, research is simply the process of finding out the solution to a presumed problem.
Combining all the definition so far pointed out we may ventured to say that research may be regarded as the applications of scientific procedure.
Different put, research I a systematic or controlled observation that may lead to the development of generalization, principles or theories resulting in the prediction and possible control of event. It is systematic quest for undiscovered truth an also a way to aquire dependable or reliable and usefyu information. It involves scientific and statistical approaches which may include stating an providing hypothesis an testing of same.
Research is concerned with identification and study of variables which may not be related and may not also be controlled. A good research needs plan and a clear statement of the problem under investigation. Although it may take place in different settings and may utilise different method, it is universally a planned or well organized and objectives search for a reliable and useful knowledge. It is a serious business and should be treated as such.

Steps in research process:

  1. Research your topic
  2. Spot the problem
  3. Identify research questions
  4. Establish a design for the research
  5. Write a research proposal.

Research your topic;

The first step is to choose your topic of discussion an the area of research when choosing your research topic make sure you have a wide range of understanding of the topic read wide on related write up so that you will have enough knowledge and procedures of the research topic for example you are to write on public finance this type of topic will require you to have a more knowledge on government policies and administration management, to be able to write extensively on that topic and also you will have to visit some government parastertals to aquire recent information and data for your research topic.

Spot the problem;

The next step is to identify the problem to be addressed in the research after you are settled with the topic or niche you define the statement problem of the research for example it can be a research base on an existing aguement among scholars or an organization performance or problem related to the society. Identifying the problems whether it is theoretical or practical is the step that will give you a clearer picture of the research process. 

Identify research qeustions;

At this stage you create a research qeustions base on your findings on the statement problem that was identified. This Questions will target exactly what you want to find out, the research question will focus on describing , analysing an comparing the research problems. The quantitative and qualitative method can be yes or no as answers to try specifics questionnaires, you might want to also develop a conceptaul framework and testable hypothesis for the research process. Research questionare example

Create a design for the research;

At this stage you are required to know the type of method you will adopt in collecting data wether it is going to be qualitative or quantitative method of data collection, you will also decide to use secondary or primary method as you so which base on the type of research you are under going, for example you want to determine the effect, cuases or  draw general conclusion on a specific experiments or context.

Write a research proposal;

After completing all the above steps you are now ready to write a proposal, this will outline the the relavance, content, and plan the that ha been undergone.  It will also outline the problem statement, background, literature review and research questions , sections shows exactly what are your recommendation to the identified problems an what you will do. Getting your proposal approved by your supervisor will give you a clearer view of writing your thesis and desertions about the research project.

Characteristics of research process:

The various definition of research process which we have just discussed reveal many common characteristics of the research process. Thorough understanding of these may really be of great assistance to the students in the conduct of his research or project writing. Among others ,the following worthy of note.
  1. Research is circular, that is it has a point to begin and a point to end like every process it requires direction and this can be achieved through a meaningful statement of hypothesis.
  2. Research is systematic or procedural. It is a structural process and must therefore, follow laid down rules and regulations for it's conduct. It must be done in an objective manner where various steps are religiously followed.
  3. Every research aims at solving problems. It must start with a puzzle in the mind of the researchers. In order words , there must be a problem the researchers wants to solve or a phenomenon of interest he wants to satisfy. Such curiosity must be worth all the effort to be put in conducting the research.
  4. Research is logica, it follows a system that employs logic at many points. The discussion in the view of related literature can only be meaningful if they are made to be logical in nature. Logic also helps to check the validity of the conclusion drawn as well as the generalization in the context of external validity.
  5. Research is empirical data are essential tools for any research procedures. It is the collection and analysis of data that identify research and empirical process. All statement must be backed by facts and figures. There should be a reason for every assertion or conclusion. What cannot be explained or defended should not be dragged into the write up.
  6. Research emphasizes the application if the principle of generalization to arrive at conclusion. This helps in the prediction of future occurrence. Just like statistics which employs the use of samples to draw conclusion about a population, research can generalize about an industry by the use of a case study involving just a member of the industry.
  7. Knowledge from research is replicable and transmittable. Because it is recorded generalized and elicited, research is less transitory in nature than the products of other problem solving processes. Thus other researchers and investigators may use the result of one research to build upon the research result of another immediately a research is published. It's result are open for reference by other authors. This is the principle applied in the view of related literature which is found in chapter two of every research project.
  8. Research is reductive. When a researcher applies analytic procedures to the data he has collected, he reduces the confusion of individual event and objective to more understandable categories of concept. This process of reduction is part of the attempt to translate from reality to an abstract or conceptual state in order to understand the relationship between events an attempt to predict how these relationship might operate in other context

Ethical consideration in the research process:

In conclusion of this section we shall be reviewing those things researchers must bear in mind in the conduct of his study to avoid a misconduct. As already stated , research process is serious business which must be carried out with every amount of care and cuation. Nowadays students treat the Writing of project with levity and do not bother about the implications of their care free Attitude to research work. The discussion is meant to remind researchers of what may constitutes unprofessional or unethical acts in the research process. Among other things the researcher is to note are the following:
  • That the respondent has the right to be anonymous . Data collection may involves interviews and the use of questionare which will involve some interaction with respondents
  • The respondent also ha the right of confidentiality. This is true especially when anonymity has not been emphasized in the course of data collection the researcher may come across a lot of data especially in business offices and banks, which must be treated confidentially. A researcher must therefore inculcate himself with habit of confidentiality.
  • That a researcher should be ready at any time to defend the content or outcome of his research work. The work is fully his or her responsibility or liability that may arise from it . Sometimes students use fabricated or fake data to write projects establishment they are using as case studies. In some other cases the collected data from organizations and use them without permission for project writing. This is unethical an can incur the wrath of the management of such organization. There is a limit for "academy immunity". A research published now can make or down grade the author in future. This once again , emphasize the need for caution in the research process.

Also read:The types of research

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