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12/13/21

Types of communication

Definition of communication:

Many scholars and educationist in various fields of study have proffered several definition of communication to be able to explain the techniques and issues that are involved in this phenomenon. One of the definition by a scholar name little in the year 1990 he believes that if there should be any reasonable and meaningful communication between two people there has be and agreed language, symbols,codes, and signs shared and understood by both the sender and the reciever of the message. He further stated that "communication is the process by which information is passed between individuals, business organizations by the means of a previous agreed codes". Another scholar by the name agboujah in 1985 says that communication explains the art as a process which involves defferent element and prescribed rules and customs that govern human relationships and events. Hybels and Weaver on the other hand in 1992 further defined communication as any process in which people share information, ideas and feelings. That process involves not just spoken and written words , but also body language, personal mannerism and style ,the surroundings anything that add meaning to a massage.


Types of communication


Types of communication:

The two major group of communication are classified as ;
1. Verbal communication
2. Non verbal communication

Verbal communication;

This type of communication involves mostly the use of words. The adjective verbal had to do with words , especially the spoken word; but because words are involved in both written and oral speach the term varbal communication is used to cover this aspectif human communication , verbal communication is broadly divided into two main categories; which is oral and written communication.

Oral communication:

This is the form of communication in which our thoughts and ideas are verbalized or spoken aloud by the means of the speech organs. Meaningful speech sound are put and arrange together through the coordination of the lungs,palates, tongue,lips,teeth, nose,and the oral cavity in an utterrance to convey and intended meaning. The mechanism of speech production will be discussed in the details later.

Oral communication can be discussed at five levels;

1. Intra personal communication
2. Inter personal communication
3. Group communication
4. Public communication
5. Mass communication

Intra personal communication;

At the intra personal level of communication, an individual may verbalized the ideas or thoughts going on in his mind without necessarily intending such message for a receiver. This happens because most of the time we ponder on issues within us and weigh them properly before speaking them out to others. Because the transfer of information goes in within an individual,this type of communication is known As intra personal. Instance abound of how people think aloud by giving voice to their thoughts when there is actually nobody listening to them as an audience. People have also been accused of talking to themselves. The element of soliloquy in literature is also an aspect of intra personal communication.
Some scholars have also viewed intra personal communication as the transmission of messages or information within the body by the body system , sense orgarns ,etc. It is argued that the sense organs send messages in the form of electronical impulses to the brain through the nervous system . As the brain interprete these messages, an appropriate feedback is sent through the Same channel to the sense orgarns concerned for immediate action. The human body is so used of this form of communication that we often lose sight of itsi existence. People are able to respond to thier environment and communication with thier likes as a result of their ability to co ordinates and communicate intra personally.

Interpersonal communication:

This is the form of communication in which there is an interaction between persons in such a way that there is the exchange of ideas , and feelings between them. In these sense ,the ideas that have been concieved in the mind of one person are verbalized deliberately for the benefits or consumption of another person. Interpersonal communication thrives where two or more people share certain things in common, for example codes and symbols, experience, status, etc. This form of communication, is mostly employed in our day to day interaction with people in our home business organization, work place, schools and markets ,etc. Interpersonal communication is the ideal in that it brings out the beauty and originality of the interaction.

Group communication;

Group communication



This form of communication may be defined as one which involves the transmission if ideas or information among three other person s. Brydon and his fellow Scott in 1995 defind a group as three or more individuals who are aware of each other s presence ,share a mutually interdepndent purpose , engage in communication transaction with on e another and who identify with the norms of the group.
   For groups to be effective,there must be a purpose that requires mutual effort of every member to achieve, another stricking features of a group is that every group has rules of conduct or pattern of behaviour that are considered customary by which members are guided. Groups share norms although such norms may not be generally stated or printed in black and white. A group may be constituted of three or more people who have come together to achieve a particular goal or purpose. Group communication may be seen in places such as the school,offices, Church,home etc. The size and composition of such groups may vary according to the goals and participates in group communication; each member may be assigned certain roles or duties by other members collective decisions, make suggestions,nominate and elect people ,etc to serve the interest of the generality of the group. Group communication helps individuals members of any group to make thier contribution in terms of ideas , information,donation etc.to agree with the saying that no man is an island and two good head are better than one.

The idea of interpersonal and group communication helps to promote effective interaction amongst people of different classes, religious, political affiliation and linguistic background. It also makes clear the notion of role relationship and role assignment in our society.

Public communication;

Public communication


This is a situation whereby a sender (sender receiver, speaker ) make a formal presentation to an audience.  This is the form of a highly structured message. Which shapes to achieve various goals depending on the intention of the communicator. The functions of public speaking could be synonymous with the aims, purpose or objective of the individuals concerned. We may therefore,say that the purpose, of a speech could be to inform , entertain , actaute and r motivate, or persuade an audience.
        Public speaking is an inevitable experience which we must contend with at one point of our career or the other. This type of communication has something in common with the other dimensions of communication discussed earlier.

Mass communication;

Mass communication


This is the use of either the print news paper magazine,or electronic radio, television,film, media to send messages to large and heterogeneous audience. These media ,with modern technological influence are making attempt to be more interactive with thier audience. Nevertheless, they are still one many system of communication and are still one to many system of communication and are slow in responding to audience feedback.  The choice to use any of these media depends greatly on the message and the audience. For example,these days we listen to and phone in programs and live concert/interactive shows on radio and television but none of these offers the audience the real feel of the natural involvement and warmth that depict an interpersonal interaction.

Written communication:

Written communication


This type of communication involves the translation of oral message into organised meaningful alphabetical symbols. Writing has to do with the graphic signs or symbols representedon a surface for example paper, book,the chalkboard,wall,palm etc. With the help of the muscles of the hand . Very many people engage in written communication daily due to the nature of their business and jobs ,the people they interact with and the message they want to convey. Written communication is evident in letter, formal and informal, minutes of meetings, memoranda, reports, speeches, abstracts, essays,press release, etc.

For more information;

Non verbal communication

Non verbal communication describes the various ways people communicate in face to face situation without employing the use of words . To a great extent non verbal communication involves the use if part of the body to express a meaning independently or to reinforce the spoken words. Non verbal communication techniques Mays be employed consciously. This form of communication can be divided into three main areas namely;
1. Body language (kinesics)
2. Distance (proxemics)
3. Para language

For more information on the type of communication for organisation;


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