What is a brand?


The brand


The word branding is a comprehensive term, and it includes other narrower terms. A brand is a name, term, symbol, or special design, or some combination of this element that is intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or a group of sellers. A brand differentiates one seller’s product/ services from those of his competitors.


Features of a brand


1.    A brand name consists of words, letters, and or number that can be vocalized for example radio, infozoner, Google etc.

2.    A brand mark (logo) is part of the brand that appears in the form of a symbol, design, or distinctive coloring or lettering. It is recognized by sight but is not expressed when a person pronounce the brand name. Brand mark/logo is illustrated for example, the red star Texaco petroleum products, the colonial gentle man for Quaker oats, etc. for metal rings by Audi.

3.    A trade mark. The American marketing association defines trade mark as “a brand that is given legal protection,” because under the law, it has been appropriated by one seller. Thus trademark is essentially a legal term. All trademarks are brands and thus include words, letters, or numbers that can be pronounced. They may also include a pictorial design (brand mark/ logo). Some make mistake in belief that the trade mark is only the pictorial part of the brand.


Characteristics of a good product brand


1.    A good product brand should suggest something about products characteristics for example if you are into car production one can brand the product as fix automobile.

2.    A good product brand is easy to pronounce, spell and remember

3.    Is distinctive

4.    Is adaptable to new products that may be added to a firms product line

5.    Is capable of being registered and legally protected under the law.


Generic name of a brand


Over a period of years a brand may become so well accepted that the name of the brand is substituted as a generic, descriptive or general name of a category of product. People then associate the name with the product and not with the producer or owner of the brand, for example every bags etc. a brand name can become generic in several way.


Ways a brand name can become generic


1.    Sometimes  the patent on a product expires

2.    Sometimes there is no simple descriptive name available and so the public continues to use the brand name as a generic name; and

3.    Sometimes the firm just does too good job of advertising and selling with an outstanding brand name. Ideally, a firm wants its brand to be preferred and even insist upon the consumer, but it does not want its brand name to be generic. For buyers, brands make it easy for consumers to identify product and assure purchasers that they are getting comparable quality. For sellers:

1.      Branding is something that can be advertise and recognized when displayed on selves in a store,

2.      Branding helps sellers to control their market share in order that buyers will not confuse one product with another

3.      Branding reduces price comparison

4.      Branding for sellers can add a measure of prestige to otherwise ordinary commodities (for example Saint Louis sugar, dangote cement etc.).

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