Difference between management and administration

We can summarize the meaning of management as the use if people and other scarce resources In both profit and non profit organizations to accomplish stated objective: Generally, managerial task or functions include whatever is pertinent to make the most effective use of  an enterprise resources, material ,finance , machinery, objective setting , planning, decisions making , building and developing the organization,formulating policies ,admi administrating ,and creating monitoring control system.

Management and administration

Different usage of the concept of management

Management like any other field of study can be viewed from many different perspective. Four of such usage can be identified as ;

1. Management as an organization or administration pricess
2. Management as a decipline of science or art.
3. Management as a group of individuals running an organizations.
4. Management as an occupation career or profession.

As a process managerial activities are reflected and exemplified in the mangers responsibility to guide ,direct and control the actions of others in the working towards the achievement if intended goals.

Management as a decipline in science or art the question of weather management is an art or a science or both is a common one in the decipline literature. A basic understanding of this issue is crucial to the discussion of management.

As a science , we view management as an array of accumulated knowledge, tested and proved , authentic and reliable by scientific methodology and reduce to a body if principles. In handing the non human element, the manager may apply scientific methods with close precision and accurate outcome. However, in dealing with the human being the manager cannot expect or predict accurately due to the inherent behaviour exibited in human. For this vital fact managers may employ science to some degree in making decision and supplement such with art , relying on their own skills and initiative in manipulating the available resource to attain feasible and desired organizational goals .

Many Management scholars regard management as an art in fact ,one source has even defined management as the art of making decisions with insufficient information”. The artistic process is communication .The process is generally seen as having three vital aspect ; craft ,vision and communication. The process if mangers qualities as an art form in all instance.. managers must have the tools (craft) to accomplish their task. They must posses vision in other to implement innovation strategies,and they must be able to communicate effectively in the work environment and elsewhere.

Management as an occupational career or profession. In resent years there had being further consideration as to whether management can be regarded as a profession . The conflicting argument can be considered only if a profession is defined. The following main point seem relevant in the disc.

The must exist a body of principles, skills and techniques and specilizes knowledge. There must formal method of acquiring training and experience. An organization must be established which form ethical codes for the guidance and conduct of members. If the above standard are considered ,then management cannot really be called a profession. There are no license for managers or accepted code of ethics ,but there are tendencies towards professionalism and these will undoubtedly increase. As a profession it occupation a manager refers to someone who had advance in management training and several years in managerial practices but it lack definite standard of entry and practices such as in law, medicine, engineering etc.

Management as a group if individuals running an organization.
As a group if individuals management refers to persons or group of individuals in an organization who are officially vested with authority and accountability for directing this while get work done.

Management as a universal process

In practice ; a suitable environment is needed in other to apply the principles of management effectively. However , environment differ and it has to be considered whether management problems vary with the environment and whether management skills can be effectively transferred. 

Many management scholars hold different veiw on the universality of the concept of management. For instance, p.f drucker ,a management expert ,holds that management skills and experience cannot be applied to the running of different organization. He argue that the main objective of private organization is profit consistent with it's security and stability. This differ from non profit organization  whose officers do not have the responsibility for producing goods and services or maintaining wealth -resources.

Another school of thought headed by G.W Miller and others argued that , although the problems and organisational and non profit enterprises,small and big organization,the functions performed by mangers are nearly the same. All managers operate in these organizational objective. They must plan , organize ,lead and control so that these organizational objective are met. The functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling are similar regardless if ownership or type of organizations that is involved. The universality of management is a well known concept in both the private and public sectors. Environmental circumstances change from one managerial situation to another. Management style have to adjust to the particular factor controlling the decision maker . This adaptive approach is often referred to in management as contingency management.

Finally, the position is that ,all resources needed by organization are scarce and even non business organization must allocate men , materials and equipment,time and money to varying needs and aims. This can be done only by mangers using their skills and knowledge and to this extent it seems the management skills are transferable hence the universality of both the principles and concept of management in private and public enterprises.
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