Three component of guidance and counseling


component of guidance and counseling
the three component of guidance and counseling


The three component of guidance include the following:


1.      Educational guidance

2.      Vocational guidance

3.      Personal social guidance


Scope of educational guidance services to individual information guidance:


This is through the provision of educational information which refer to the collection and dissemination of all important or valid and usable data about all available educational opportunities and requirements as well as the financial demands of going through such educational institutions. Information could be collected on specific issues affecting educational development for example;


1.      The primary and even post secondary institution and thereafter;

2.      Curriculum and co- curricular offerings in such institutions

3.      The entry requirement of such institution

4.      The subject loads and bursary and ways to obtain them

5.      The physical characteristics of such tertiary institutions e.g. where there found;

6.      The type of professions such education leads one to;

7.      Existing clubs and societies within the various institutions;

8.      The method or mode of application into such tertiary institutions;

9.      The career protects of such professions;

10.  The problem of such a profession.


Academic counseling:

This is a face to face interaction between a counselor and counselee or a group of counselees with the sole aim of helping such students to develop effective needed skills for the manipulating of academic potentialities. During such interactions attempt are made to come up with answers to such important questions as: how, when, what, where and why to study. It is during such academic counseling program that students become familiar with such reading methods such as skimming, scanning and detailed readings as well as when to adapt each of these strategies. For the avoidance of over concentration on some aspects of school curriculum against others It is also very important to encourage students to draw up individual study. This allows for equitable attention on all aspects of schools programs.

Gainful still students will be made to understand that any place of learning must be free from external distractions such that are counterproductive to effective and purposeful learning. It is therefore imperative that in as much as possible, study places must not be allowed to be taken by other disturbance that will make it possible for problems in their learning or effective recall of what is being learned. Students should be encourage on a continues basis to put into practice newly acquired knowledge as well as linking such newly knowledge and experiences with the environment.

Furthermore, it is during the academic counseling that effective study techniques or skills are taught. For example;


a.      Get acquainted with the library: such visits are quite useful at all times. Many students think unless they are assigned some work to do in the library then they can go there. But one could get inspiration from other serious students whom he meets in the library.

b.      Budget your time effectively: time is students money in the bank (his/her capital) if wisely used; it will bring many happy returns. Unfortunately, many students spend too much time on unimportant routine tasks and hardly get to the important ones. They do not distribute their time wisely. One should have specific time for specific activities.

c.       Determine your best study time: some like to read in the night, some in the day etc.

d.      While in the class, try to psyche out your teacher: see it from your teacher’s perspective, imitate him or her etc.

e.      Read under ideal conditions: read when there are no distractions for example music, noise, letters or pictures or loved ones. A comfortable chair or bed; children (for mothers and fathers) constitute distraction.

f.        Read where there is sufficient light, good ventilation, and not in public places

g.      Avoid excessive anxiety at examination time

h.      Furthermore, during the academic counseling the Robinson s. and 3r. Could be put forward for experimentation where S stands for survey, first R stands for reading, second R stands for revise and the last R for recalling.


The summation of all assistance and activities that are directed towards helping individuals match their personal qualities with the requirement of various occupations using the labor market as a guide amount to what i.e. referred to as vocational guidance.


Vocational guidance therefore could be used to refer to all forms of assistance that are directed towards helping individuals make smooth transition from school to work life as well as helping individuals attain job satisfaction.


The scope of vocational guidance


Vocational guidance has three steps:

1.      Appraisal of the individual. That is understanding who is, the individual self concept

2.      Giving the counsel occupational information such as the demand and supply of occupations available, what the future of such occupation is bleak or bright. What the future of each occupation is, the nature of work.

3.      The total demand of each job is made known to the counsel so, that he can match the first point above with the second point.


Vocational guidance:

The national vocational guidance association(NVGA) of USA define vocational guidance as the dissemination of information, experience, and advice in regards to choosing a vocation, prepare for it, and make progress in it,(crow and crow)


The steps in vocational guidance

a.      Studying the individual

b.      Provision of occupation information

c.       Matching process


Studying the individual:


This involves a comprehensive appraisal of students with an objective of getting a comprehensive understanding of a state of an individual’s ability, aptitude, interest, and personality.

Such appraisal program is usually undertaken with the assistance of psychometric and non psychometric devices.

 Occupational information:


This include assembling and dissemination of all valid and usable data about all present and probably future occupations, requirement for entrance as well as the demand and supply of the labor market including specific information on such issues as:

1.      Available occupation distribution

2.      Pre conditions of entrance into such occupation including academic qualification required.

3.      The nature of work involved in each of such occupations

4.      Special rewards or incentives offered including fringe benefits

5.      The advancement patterns acquirable from each of such occupation

6.      Hazard and risks involved where any in each of such occupations

7.      The rate of distribution of the labor force including the demand and supply of labor market.


Matching process:


When such human variable such as personality, interest ,ability and aptitude of an individual have been attained, as well as valid and usable information about the world of work have been effectively disseminated to individuals, reasonable compromise can then be worked out between the information about provided and the individual appraised such that occupational preparation and or selection should come to be based on satisfactory knowledge of the self back up by the relevant occupational information


The concept of personal- social guidance


This is the third component of the guidance services which is largely expected to facilitate the attainment of educational and vocational objectives. Largely the service entails the dispensation of information on such issues as:


1.      Creating realistic self concept of oneself

2.      Developing and sustaining workable relationship between same and opposite gender

3.      Preparing for a satisfying mate selection

4.      Understanding masculine and feminine roles

5.      Accepting and coping with family responsibilities

6.      Understanding the implication of physiological changes within an individual especially at adolescence

7.      Inculcation of anxiety and stress management skills especially at the times of depression.


It is important to note that an individual who is faced with complex personal- social problems is likely to have such problems militating against the realization of his educational and vocational aspirations.

In the same view, a successful educational program is a non negotiable precondition for satisfying vocational life. The identification of one’s self-concept can help the determination of achievable educational targets. And the later being the precondition for ones emotional stability. Then is such contention that educational, vocational and personal –social guidance are in extricable interrelated and that any attempts to separate the three

 Would be viewed as a mere academic exercise.


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