The essential managerial function and skills of planning, organizing, leading and controlling are very important in modern management. Effective managers perform these functions, in their pursuit of the goals that have being specified for their organisation. These element or functions roles and skills of a manager are  discussed on detail as follows. 


The functions roles and skills of the manager 

The term manager , executives, administrator are closely related and sometimes used interchangeably. The term manager refers to the managerial employee who runs an organisation. He is responsible for the achievement of results through the specialized efforts of other people, whether individual or in groups. He is the medium from which orders flows to employees,he originates orders, make decisions and translates organisation policy.  He allocates limited resources to various competing units and department. He has authority and responsibility to build safe and unsafe products, and seek peace. He creates conditions and environment in which individuals are provided with jobs, incomes, life styles,protection health care, knowledge etc. 
Classifying the functions of a manager, one must distinguish clearly those of enterprise-function operation, such as selling manufacturing, accounting, engineering, and purchasing.  These differ from one enterprises to another, but the basic tasks of the manger, as a manager are common to all. The element of management as it functions roles and skills of a manager are therefore;
  1. Planning
  2. Organizing
  3. Staffing
  4. Leading
  5. Controlling
Occasionally scholars concern themselves about the order in which the managerial functions should be undertaken.
Theoretically ,planning comes first, and organizing, staffing, leading and controlling follow.  But according to the logic, an enterprise carries out only master plan, each part of which, once completed, never had to be revised or modified.  In fact, managers easily move from one function to another and devote their attention to the most pressing issues. 

Planning involves selecting objective and the strategies, policies, programs, and procedures for achieving them either for the entire decision making, since it involves selecting from among alternatives.  There are, for example, policies relating to authority, prices, program of production, internal audit, products and people.

The organization structure
 of course, not an end in itself but tool for accomplishing enterprise objectives. 

Staffing involve filling and keeping filled, the position provided for by the organisation structure. It thus necessitates defining work-force requirement for job to be done, and it include inventorying, apprasing ,and selecting candidates for positions; compensating, and training position holders to do those tasks effectively. 

Leading has to do with the predominantly interpersonal aspect of managing.  Most important problems facing mangers arise  from people, their desire, and attitudes ,their behaviour as individuals and in groups, and the need for effective managers also to be effective leaders. People tend to follow those in whom they see a means of satisfying their needs, whishes and desire.  This area of management involves motivation, leadership style and approaches and effective communication.

In managing risks  many authorities consider coordination to be effective thou is seen to be a separate function of the manager. It seems more accurate, however to regard it, as the essence of menagership ,for the achievement of harmony of individual efforts towards the accomplishment of group is the purpose of management. Each of the managerial functions is an exercise in coordination. 

Basic skills required of managers 

1. Technical skills

This is the ability to use tools, equipment and techniques or procedure of a specialised field. These include engineers,doctors,accountant,entertainers and carpenters etc. Who have specific technical skills in their various field of specialization to be able  perform  a specific tasks. Technical includes operating tasks, designing schedule, information, quality output etc. 

2.Human skills

This represents the ability to work effectively with and understand the way people behave. Human  skill enhance the manager to have a sense of feeling for other people and an appreciation of the right of individuals or groups. Human skills is usually reflected and demonstrated by the way individual manager relates to his superoir officers, those of equal level with him and of course his subordinates.  Human skills includes leadership, motivation, communication, moral building ,coaching and counselling ,training and supportiveness and delegating etc. 

3. Conceptual skills 

This represents the ability to comprehend all the activities and interest of the organisation functions as corporate whole and the interdependence of all parts. Conceptual skills include intelligence, verbal ability and for sight to be able to conceive the nature of the problem of the corporate entity and to take critical corporate decisions. Conceptual skills are releasing for effective planning, organising system development, problem analysis, decision -making, coordinating, controlling and delegating. 
The proportion of these skills required of managers tends to differ in various levels.  The foreman at the operating business management level for instance require more technical skills than the unit heads in the middle level and the chief executive at the strategic level.  While members of the board of directors require more conceptual skills than those at the middle level or first level of business management. 

4.Communication skill is very important for a manager so that they will be able to pass the information regarding the business firm effectively to bring and persuade customer to partronize their products or services that the business firm render. A good communication skills is a function that should be given the desired attention to succeed in business.

Basic skills such this could drive the business to the next level when utilize effectively by managers.

5.Managerial skills;

The management skill is another skill needed by the manager or enterprenuer to succeed in his or her business venture, this skills will help the manager to coordinate and organize the activities that is carried out in the business firm. The mordern management science takes this skill as one of the major criaterial for a manager to be admitted as a professional manager and business guru.

6.Creative skills;

To be creative means to be innovative, all manager are required to be creative in their thinking for the business to grow and compete with it competitors who are in the same field of business. In this case critical thinking is needed to achieve such goals and objectives for the firm. The manager will have to engage in reserach on new development and the current trends in the business world to so as to meet up with the current changes the staring the global community.

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Functions and roles of a manager:

Some of the functions and roles of a manager in any business organization is subject to the performance of that firm the more the manager perform his roles efficiently and effectively the more the firm will grow to the next level increasing the return on investment of the business below are the mojor roles a manager is to perform for the firm to achieve a great result at the end of the annual report of the organization.


The manager has the role of planning, the planning process is to be initiated by the manager who is supposed to be the head of the organization and firm planning is very important in any business , and for better result the manager should have a plan on ground to meet up with any challenges that may arise in the process of production or services. Planning ahead of time, bringin new ideas to help improve the existing ones to make the business grow and have better engagement with the customers.


The manager also has the role of organizing, he or she must organize the firm in such a way that the staff and employees are motivated to give in their best to the business to grow. Organizing is part of the roles that should rest on the shoulders of the firms management which is good for increase in revenue and marketing. Because when an organization is well organize it naturally attracts customers to the product and services.


The manager must have the leadership qualities to lead the employees under him being like a role model for his staff and surbudinate. Leading by example is key for the growth of the business. For example a manager should not always be late to the office because he will be teaching is employees a negative way of doing things meeting up to time is important this will make the staff to avoid being late because they know that the boss will not take it likely with them so leading and being a good example is a very important role a manager should always consider and work hard so as to achieve the major goal which is profit maximisation.


The manager has the role of controlling the activities of the business enterprise. Making sure that all transactions are successful without any challenges,he controls the financial inflow and cash flow, to control the staff is the responsibility of the managers motivating the employees to perform better in services, motivation is driving Force to achieve the desired goals.

Staffing and employment:

The manager has the role of employing staff to the organization, conducting interviews for prospective employees that are looking for job in the business firm. The manager deside who gets the job or who is to be promoted to a higher rank in the organization,this role is very important and sensitive for the business because it deals with employment of new staff that will be part of the firm.

Risk taker;

Another role of a manager is that he or she is responsible for taking risk for the company, since he or she is the managing director, making
Decisions regarding investment, savings, taking loans , etc. The signature of the managers are required for each and every transactions that the business firm is engaged in which make the manager a risk taker on behave of the whole organization.

Represent the organization;

The manager represent the firm in terms of conferences, seminars, associations, business dinners,cases, trainings etc. This role is very important is requires a smart and efficient manager because it deals with the representation of the image of the company to the global community so the manager need to be sharp and intelligent for effective performance.

As you can see the functions roles and skills of a manager is very important in the growth and development of any business firm that want to increase it return on investment. Managers must always search and be willing to go for training an retraining so as to increase their knowledge of the business world as the world is now a global village we're information is now at your finger tips, take this opportunity to increase your knowledge on the new management tricks and the implementation of new ideas and innovation.

In summary Managers play critical roles within organizations, and their functions, roles, and required skills can vary depending on the level of management (e.g., top, middle, or first-line managers) and the specific industry or organization.

 Here is a general overview:

The Functions of a Manager:

Planning: Managers set organizational goals, develop strategies, and create plans to achieve them.

Organizing: They arrange resources, tasks, and teams to implement the plans effectively.

Leading: Managers guide and motivate their teams, providing direction and support to achieve objectives.

Controlling: They monitor progress, assess performance, and make necessary adjustments to ensure goals are met.

The Roles of a Manager:

Interpersonal Roles:

Leader: Providing guidance and direction to team members.

Liaison: Building and maintaining relationships with other departments or external contacts.

Figurehead: Representing the organization in ceremonial or symbolic roles.

Informational Roles:

Monitor: Collecting information about internal and external factors.

Disseminator: Sharing relevant information with the team.

Spokesperson: Communicating organizational information to external parties.

Decisional Roles:

Entrepreneur: Initiating and managing change within the organization.

Disturbance Handler: Resolving conflicts and addressing crises.

Resource Allocator: Allocating resources effectively.

Negotiator: Engaging in negotiations on behalf of the organization.

The Skills of a Manager:

Leadership: Ability to inspire and guide teams toward achieving goals.

Communication: Effective verbal and written communication with team members and stakeholders.

Problem Solving: Analytical and critical thinking skills to address challenges.

Decision Making: Making informed and timely decisions based on available data.

Time Management: Prioritizing tasks and managing time efficiently.

Team Building: Building and fostering a cohesive and productive team.

Adaptability: Being flexible and responsive to changes in the business environment.

Conflict Resolution: Skill in managing conflicts and promoting a positive work environment.

Strategic Thinking: The ability to think long-term and align actions with organizational strategy.

Financial Acumen: Understanding financial principles and budget management.

Remember that the specific skills and emphasis on various functions and roles can differ based on the level of management and the industry. Effective managers often possess a combination of these skills and adapt them to their unique circumstances.

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What are the four basic functions of management?

The four basic functions of management are as follows:


Involves setting objectives and determining the best course of action to achieve them.


Involves arranging resources and tasks to implement the plans effectively.


Involves guiding, motivating, and supervising employees to accomplish organizational goals.


Involves monitoring progress, measuring performance, and making necessary adjustments to ensure goals are met.

These functions are often referred to as the P-O-L-C framework: Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling.

Which management function is most challenging for a manager to conduct?

The challenging nature of each management function can vary depending on the manager's skills, the organization's context, and the specific situation. However, "leading" is often considered one of the most challenging functions for managers. Leading involves motivating and guiding employees, resolving conflicts, and making decisions that impact people. It can be complex because it requires interpersonal and communication skills, emotional intelligence, and adaptability to work with diverse personalities and handle various workplace dynamics. Effective leadership is crucial for a manager's success and can be a significant challenge due to its people-oriented nature.

Which management function is most essential to a business' success?

All management functions are essential to a business's success, and they are interrelated. However, the function often considered most essential is "planning." Planning sets the direction and objectives for the organization, and it involves making critical decisions about where the business is heading and how it will get there. Effective planning helps allocate resources efficiently, identify opportunities and threats, and establish a clear vision for the future. Without sound planning, the other functions, such as organizing, leading, and controlling, may lack a clear foundation to operate effectively. So, while all functions are important, planning is often seen as the cornerstone for business success.

Is decision-making a function of management?

Decision-making is a crucial aspect of every function of management, but it is not typically categorized as one of the four primary management functions (planning, organizing, leading, and controlling). Decision-making permeates all these functions.

In planning, managers make decisions about the organization's goals, strategies, and courses of action. Organizing decisions involve structuring tasks, responsibilities, and resources. In the leading function, managers make decisions related to motivating employees, resolving conflicts, and setting priorities. Lastly, controlling decisions pertain to assessing performance and making adjustments as necessary.

So, while decision-making is not a standalone management function, it is an integral part of the managerial process, influencing all aspects of management.

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